Administratively, Indonesia consists of 33 provinces, five of which have special status: The provinces of Aceh, Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Papua, and West Papua have greater legislative privileges and a higher degree of autonomy from the central government than the other provinces. Indonesia consists of 17,508 islands, about 6,000 of which are inhabited. The islands are scattered over both sides of the equator. The five largest islands are Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan (the Indonesian part of Borneo), New Guinea (shared with Papua New Guinea), and Sulawesi.
At 1,919,440 square kilometers (741,050 sq mi), Indonesia is the worlds 16th-largest country in terms of land area. Its average population density is 134 people per square kilometer (347 per sq mi), ranking 79th in the world, although Java, the world’s most populous island, has a population density of 940 people per square kilometer (2,435 per sq mi). At 4,884 metres (16,024 ft), Puncak Jaya in Papua is Indonesia’s highest peak, and Lake Toba in Sumatra is its largest lake, with an area of 1,145 square kilometers (442 sq mi). The country’s largest rivers are in Kalimantan, and include the Mahakam and Barito; such rivers are communication and transport links between the islands river settlements.
Indonesia’s size, tropical climate, and archipelagic geography support the world’s second highest level of biodiversity (after Brazil). Indonesia is a republic country.
Indonesia has been a member of the United Nations since 1950, maintains close relationships with its neighbors in Asia, and is a founding member of ASEAN and the East Asia Summit.
Indonesia has around 300 ethnic groups